Venezuela has expelled the Brazilian ambassador to Caracas, Ruy Pereira, and Canadian charge d'affaires Craib Kowalik.
The move was announced by the head of Venezuela's powerful Constituent Assembly, Delcy Rodriguez. Ms Rodriguez accused Canada of interfering in Venezuela's internal affairs and Brazil of violating the rule of law.
Canada imposed sanctions on senior Venezuelan officials a few months ago.
The decision to expel Ambassador Pereira may have been triggered by Brazil's recent complaint that President Nicolás Maduro was "constantly harassing the opposition".